The papers by N. Ikeda, by A. Ahmed et al. and by H. Wijngaard and E. Arendt are useful introductions to the nutritional literature on Tartary buckwheat. New studies are published almost weekly—mostly from Japan, China, and Europe. We’ll update these pages as frequently as we can. Please alert us articles that we have missed.
Ahmed, A., Khalid, N., Ahmad, A., Abbasi, N. A., Latif, M. S. Z., and Randhawa, M. A. (2014) “Phytochemicals and biofunctional properties of buckwheat: a review.” Journal of Agricultural Science 152(3):349-369.
Baniya, B.K., Dongol, D.M.S., Joshi, B.K., and Sharma, D.R. (2004) “Indigenous Cultural Practices and Social Perception for Conservation of Buckwheat Diversity in Nepal.” In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Buckwheat, Prague 2004 285-290.
Brunori, A., Baviello, G., Zannettino, C., Corsini, G., Sandor, G., and Vegvari, G. (2010) “The use of tartary buckwheat whole flour for bakery products: recent experience in Italy.” Annals of the University Dunarea de Jos Galati Fascicle V1 – Food Technology 34:33–38.
Brunori, A., and Végvári, G. (2007) “Rutin content of the grain of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) varieties grown in Southern Italy.” Acta Agronomica Hungarica 55(3):265–272.
Cheng, D., Zhang, X., Meng, M., Han, L., Li, Z., Hou, L., Qi, W., and Wang, C. (2016) “The protective effect of a buckwheat-enriched diet on renal injury in high salt-induced hypertension in rats.” Food Funct. 7:3548-3554.
Cho, Y. J., Bae, I. Y., Inglett, G. E., and Lee, S. (2014) “Utilization of tartary buckwheat bran as a source of rutin and its effect on the rheological and antioxidant properties of wheat-based products.” Industrial Crops and Products 61:211–216.
Danihelová, M., Jantová, S., and Šturdík, E. 2013. “Cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of buckwheat hull extracts.” Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences 2(Special issue 1):1748-1757.
Drobot, V., Semenova, A., Smirnov, J., and Myhonik, L. (2014) “Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour.” International Journal of Food Studies 3:1–12.
Eggum, B. O., Kreft, I., and Javornik, B. (1981) “Chemical composition and protein quality of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).” Qualitas Plantarum—Plant Foods For Human Nutrition 30(3–4):175–179.
Eguchi, K., Anase, T., and Osuga, H. (2009) “Development of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method to Determine the Fagopyrin Content of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tartaric Gaertn.) and Common Buckwheat (F. esculentum Moench).” Plant Prod. Sci. 12(4):475-480.
Fabjan, N., Rode, J., Kosˇir, I. J., Wang, Z., Zhang, Z., and Kreft, I. (2003) “Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) as a Source of Dietary Rutin and Quercitrin.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:6452−6455.
Filipcˇev, B., Šimurina, O., Sakacˇ, M., Sedej, I., Jovanov, P., Pestoric ́, M., and Bodrozˇa-Solarov, M. (2011) “Feasibility of use of buckwheat flour as an ingredient in ginger nut biscuit formulation.” Food Chemistry 125:164–170.
Gaberščik, A., Vončina, M., Trošt, T., Germ, M., and Bjorn, L. O. (2002) “Growth and production of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) treated with reduced, ambient and enhanced UV-B radiation.” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. 66:30-36.
Gao, J., Kreft, I., Chao, G., Wang, Y., Liu, X., Wang, L., Wang, P., Gao, X., and Feng, B. (2016) “Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) starch, a side product in functional food production, as a potential source of retrograded starch.” Food Chemistry 190:552-558.
Giménez-Bastida, J. A., and Piskuła, M. K., and Zieliński, H. (2015) “Recent Advances in Processing and Development of Buckwheat Derived Bakery and Non-Bakery Products – a Review.” Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 65(1):9–20.
GOLOB, A., GADŽO, D., STIBILJ, V., DJIKIĆ, M., GAVRIĆ, T., and GERM, M. (2016a) “Additon of Se affected concentration of Se in the second generation of tartary buckwheat plants.” Folia Biologica Geologica 57(1):87–92.
GRIN (USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network.) [https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?16531]
Guo, Y., Zhu, Y., Chen, C., and Chen, X. (2016) “Effects of Aeration Treatment on 𝛾-Aminobutyric Acid Accumulation in Germinated Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum).” Journal of Chemistry, DOI:10.1155/2016/4576758
Guo, X-D., Ma, Y-J., Parry, J., Gao, J-M., Yu, L-L., and Wang, M. (2011) “Phenolics Content and Antioxidant Activity of Tartary Buckwheat from Different Locations.” Molecules 16:9850-9867; doi:10.3390/molecules16129850
Han, L., Zhou, Y., Tatsumi, E., Shen, Q., Cheng, Y., and Li, L. (2013) “Thermomechanical Properties of Dough and Quality of Noodles Made from Wheat Flour Supplemented with Different Grades of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) Flour.” Food Bioprocess. Technol. 6:1953–1962.
Hatcher, D.W., Bellido, G.G., Anderson, M.J., Dexter, J.E., Head, D., and Izydorczyk, M. (2011) “Investigation of empirical and fundamental soba noodle texture parameters prepared with Tartary, green testa and common buckwheat.” Journal of Texture Studies 42:490–502.
Higasa, S., Fujihara, S., Hayashi, A., Kimoto, K., Aoyagi, Y. (2011) “Distribution of a novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory substance (2”-hydroxynicotianamine) in the flour, plant parts, and processed products of buckwheat.” Food Chemistry 125:607–613.
Hinneburg, I., and Neubert, R. H. H. (2005) “Influence of Extraction Parameters on the Phytochemical Characteristics of Extracts from Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) Herb.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:3−7.
Hou, Z. X., Hu, Y. Y., Yang, X., and Chen, W. (2017) “Antihypertensive effects of Tartary buckwheat flavonoids by improvement of vascular insulin sensitivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats.” Food Funct. 8:4217-4228.
Hu, Y. Y., Hou, Z. X., Liu, D. Y., and Yang, X. Y. (2016) “Tartary buckwheat flavonoids protect hepatic cells against high glucose-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance via MAPK signaling pathways.” Food Funct. 7:1523–1536.
Hu, Y. Y., Zhao, Y., Yuan, L., and Yang, X. B. (2015) “Protective effects of Tartary buckwheat flavonoids on high TMAO diet- induced vascular dysfunction and liver injury in mice.” Food Funct. 6:3359–3372.
Huang, Y-F., Peng, L-X., Liu,Y., Zhang, Z-F.,Lu, L-Y., and Zhao,G. (2013) “Evaluation of essential and toxic element concentrations in different parts of buckwheat.” Czech Journal of Food Science 31:249-255.
Huang, X.-Y., Zeller, F., Huang, K.-F., Shi, T.-X., and Chen, K.-F. (2014) “Variation of major minerals and trace elements in seeds of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).” Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 61:567–577.
Hussain, N., Ali, M., Hussain, S., Mehmood, K., and Nasir, M. (2017) “Mineral composition and sensory evaluation of buckwheat cookies supplemented with wheat flour.” International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition 2:114-118.
Ishii, S., Katsumura, T., Shiozuka, C., Ooyauchi, K., Kawasaki, K., Takigawa, S., et al. (2008) “Anti-inflammatory effect of buckwheat sprouts in lipopolysaccharide-activated human colon cancer cells and mice.” Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 72(12):3148–3157.
Jiang, P., Burczyn ́ski, F., Campbell, C., Pierce, G., Austria, J. A., and Briggs, C. J. (2007) “Rutin and flavonoid contents in three buckwheat species Fagopyrum esculentum, F. tataricum and F. homotropicum and their protective effects against lipid peroxidation.” Food Res. Int. 40:356–364.
Kano, Masatoshi, Kizaki, Tadashige, and Inasawa, Toshiyuki (2004) “The State of Cultivating Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) and its Traditional Dishes along Everest Trekking Route, Nepal.” In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Buckwheat, Prague 2004 547-552.
Kim, H., Kong, H., Choi, B., Yang, Y., Kim, Y., Lim, M.J., Neckers, L., and Jung, Y. (2005) “Metabolic and pharmacological properties of rutin, a dietary quercetin glycoside, for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.” Pharm. Res. 22:1499-1509.
Kim, S. H., Cui, C. B., Kang, I. J., Kim, S. Y., and Ham, S. S. (2007) “Cytotoxic effect of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) hull against cancer cells.” Journal of Medicinal Food 10(2):232–238.
Kim, S.-J., Zaidul, I. S. M., Suzuki, T., Mukasa, Y., Hashimoto, N., Takigawa, S., Noda, T., Matsuura-Endo, C., and H. Yamauchi (2008) “Comparison of phenolic compositions between common and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum) sprouts.” Food Chem. 110:814–820; DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem. 2008.02.050.
Kishore, G., Ranjan, S., Pandey, A., and Gupta, S. (2010) “Influence of altitudinal variation on the antioxidant potential of tartar buckwheat of western Himalaya.” Food Sci. Biotechnol. 19:1355-1363.
Kočevar Glavač, N., Stojilkovski, K., Kreft, S., Park, C.H., and Kreft, I. (2017) “Determination of fagopyrins, rutin, and quercetin in Tartary buckwheat products.” LWT – Food Science and Technology doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2017.01.068
Koyama, M., Obata, Y., and Sakamura, S. (1971) “Identification of Hydroxybenzylamines in Buckwheat Seeds (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).” Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 35(12):1870-1879. DOI: 10.1080/00021369.1971.10860168
Kuwabara, T., Han, K. H., Hashimoto, N., Yamauchi, H., Shimada, K., and Sekikawa, M. (2007). “Tartary buckwheat sprout powder lowers plasma cholesterol level in rats.” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology (Tokyo) 53(6):501–507.
Lahanov, A. P., Muzalevskaja, R. S., Shelepina, N. V., and Gorkova, I. V. (2004) “Biochemical characteristics of some species of genus Fagopyrum Mill.” In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Buckwheat, Prague 2004 604-611.
Lee, C. C., Hsu, W. H., Shen, S. R., Cheng, Y. H., and Wu, S. C. (2012) “Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat) improved high-glucose-induced insulin resistance in mouse hepatocytes and diabetes in fructose-rich diet–induced mice.” Exp Diabetes Res 1:83–8.
Lee, J-S., Bok, S-H., Jeon, S-M., Kim, H-J., Do, K-M., Park, Y-B., and Choi, M-S. (2010) “Antihyperlipidemic effects of buckwheat leaf and flower in rats fed a high-fat diet.” Food Chemistry 119:235–240.
Li, F-H., Yuan, Y., Yang, X-L., Tao, S-Y., and Ming, J. (2013) “Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench and Fagopyrum tartaricum L.Gaerth) Hulls, Brans and Flours.” Journal of Integrative Agriculture 12(9):1684-1693. doi: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60371-8
Li, W., Lin, R., and Corke, H. (2000) “Assessing the quality of common and tartary buckwheat starch.” In Howeler, R. H., Oates, C. G., and O’Brien, G. M., eds. Proceedings of the International Symposium held in Nanning, Guangxi, China. Nov 11-15, 1996. 282-291.
Lin, R., Zhou, Y., Wang, R., and Li, J. (2001) “A Study on the Extract of Tartary Buckwheat I. Toxicological Safety of the Extract of Tartary Buckwheat.” In Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Buckwheat 602-607.
Liu, H., Wang, L., Shen, M., Guo, X., lv, M., and Wang, M. (2016) “Changes in physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of tartary buckwheat and sorghum starches induced by annealing.” Starch/Stärke 68:709–718.
Lukšič, L., Árvay, J., Vollmannová, A., Tóth, T., Škrabanja, V., Trček, J., Germ, M., and Kreft, I. (2016b) ”Hydrothermal treatment of Tartary buckwheat grain hinders the transformation of rutin to quercetin.” Journal of Cereal Science 72:131-134. doi:10.1016/j.jcs.2016.10.009
Lukšič, L., Bonafaccia, G., Timoracka, M., Vollmannová, A., Trcek, J., Kozelj Nyambe, T., Melini, V., Acquistucci, R., Germ, M., and Kreft, I. (2016a) “Rutin and quercetin transformation during preparation of buckwheat sourdough bread.” Journal of Cereal Science 69:71-76
Maeda, T., Miyake, K., Tahara, M., and Morita, N. (2004) “Effect of Buckwheat Substitution for Wheat Flour on Pasta and Cookie.” In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Buckwheat, Prague 2004 559-564.
Merendino, N., Molinari, R., Costantini, L., Mazzucato, A., Pucci, A., Bonafaccia, F., Esti, M., Ceccantoni, B., Papeschi, C., and Bonafaccia, G. (2014) “A new ‘functional’ pasta containing tartary buckwheat sprouts as an ingredient improves the oxidative status and normalizes some blood pressure parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats.” Food and Function 5:1017-1026.
Peng, L.-X., Huang, Y.-F., Liu, Y., Zhang, Z.-F., Lu, L., and Zhao, G. (2014) “Evaluation of Essential and Toxic Element Concentrations in Buckwheat by Experimental and Chemometric Approaches.” Journal of Integrative Agriculture 13(8):1691-1698.
Peng, L-X., Zou, L., Tan, M-L., Deng, Y-Y., Yan, J., Yan, Z-Y., and Zhao, G. (2017) “Free Amino Acids, Fatty Acids, and Phenolic Compounds in Tartary Buckwheat of Different Hull Colour.” Czech J. Food Sci. 35(3): 214–222.
Pongrac, P., Potisek, M., Fras´, A., Likar, M., Budic, B., Myszka, K., Boros, D., Necemer, M., Kelemen, M., Vavpetic, P., Pelicon, P., Vogel-Mikus, K., Regvar, M., and Kreft, I. (2016) “Composition of mineral elements and bioactive compounds in Tartary buckwheat and wheat sprouts as affected by natural mineral-rich water.” Journal of Cereal Science 69:9-16. DOI:10.1016/j.jcs.2016.02.002
Qin, P., Wang, Q., Shan, F., Hou, Z., and Ren, G. (2010) “Nutritional composition and flavonoids content of flour from different buckwheat cultivars.” International Journal of Food Science and Technology 45:951–958.
Qin, P., Wu, L., Yao, Y., and Ren, G. (2013) “Changes in phytochemical compositions, antioxidant and ⍺-glucosidase inhibitory activities during the processing of tartary buckwheat tea.” Food Res. Int. 50:562–567.
Rana, J. C., Chauhan, R. C., Sharma, T. R., and Gupta, N. (2012) “Analyzing Problems and Prospects of Buckwheat Cultivation in India.” European Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology 6(Special Issue 2):50-56.
Sammut, D., Dennison, P., Venter, C., and Kurukulaaratchy, R. (2011) “Buckwheat allergy: a potential problem in 21st century Britain.” BMJ Case Rep. bcr0920114882. doi:10.1136/bcr.09.2011.4882 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3214221/
Saunders Bulan, M. T., Posner, J. L., Peng, D., Emshwiller, E., Wang, X., Li, J., Stoltenberg D., and Stoecker, R. (2017) “Old Crop, New Society: Persistence and Change of Tartary Buckwheat Farming in Yunnan, China.” Human Ecology 45:37–51
Sindhu, R., and Khatkar, B. S. (2016) “Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Starch and Flour of Tartary Buckwheat (F. Tataricum) Grains.” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology 5:315-320.
Skrabanja, V., Laerke, H. N., and Kreft, I. (1998) “Effects of Hydrothermal Processing of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Groats on Starch Enzymatic Availability In Vitro and In Vivo in Rats.” Journal of Cereal Science 28:209–214.
Song, C., Xiang, D-B., Yan, L., Song, Y., Zhao, G., Wang, Y-H., and Zhang, B-L. (2016) “Changes in seed growth, levels and distribution of flavonoids during tartary buckwheat seed development.” Plant Production Science 19(4):518–527. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1343943X.2016.1207485
Steadman, K. J., Burgoon, M. S., Schuster, R. L., Lewis, B. A., Edwardson, S. E., and Obendorf, R. L. (2000) “Fagopyritols, D-chiro-inositol, and other soluble carbohydrates in buckwheat seed milling fractions.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48:2843–2847.
Steadman, K. J., Burgoon, M. S., Lewis, B. A., Edwardson, S. E., and Obendorf, R. L. (2001a) “Buckwheat seed milling fractions: Description, macronutrient composition and dietary fibre.” J. Cereal Sci. 33:271-278.
Stojilkovski, K., Kočevar Glavač, N., Kreft, S., and Kreft, I. (2013) “Fagopyrin and flavonoid contents in common, Tartary, and cymosum buckwheat.” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 32:126–130.
Suzuki, T., Honda, Y., and Mukasa, Y. (2005a) “Effects of UV-B radiation, cold and desiccation stress on rutin concentration and rutin glucosidase activity in tartary buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum) leaves.” Plant Science 168:1303–1307.
Suzuki, T., Honda, Y., Mukasa ,Y., and Kim, S-J. (2005b) “Effects of lipase, lipoxygenase, peroxidase, and rutin on quality deteriorations in buckwheat flour.” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 53:8400-8405.
Tao, H., Huang, J., Yancey, P. G., Yermalitsky, V., Blakemore, J. L., Zhang,Y., Ding,L., Zagol-Ikapitte, I., Amarnath, V., Boutaud, O., Oates, J. A., Roberts, L. J. II, Davies, S. S., and Linton, M. F. “Scavenging of reactive dicarbonyls with 2-hydroxybenzylamine reduces atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic Ldlr-/- mice.” bioRxiv preprint first posted online Jan. 18, 2019; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/524884.
Tavčar Benković, E., Žigon, D., Friedrich, M., Plavec, J., and Kreft, S. (2014) “Isolation, analysis and structures of phototoxic fagopyrins from buckwheat”. Food Chemistry 143:432–439. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.07.118
Tsuzuki, W., Ogata, Y., Akasaka, K., Shibata, S., and Suzuki, T. (1991) “Fatty acid composition of selected buckwheat species by fluorometric high-performance liquid chromatography.” Cereal Chemistry 68(4):365-369.
Vogrincic, M., Timoracka, M., Melichacova, S., Vollmannova, A., Kreft, I. (2010) “Degradation of rutin and polyphenols during the preparation of tartary buckwheat bread.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 58:4883–4887.
Wang, H., Chen, R. F., Iwashita, T., Shen, R. F., and Ma, J. F. (2015) “Physiological characterization of aluminum tolerance and accumulation in tartary and wild buckwheat.” New Phytologist 205:273–279 DOI:10.1111/nph.13011
Wang, Lijun, Yan, Xiushi, Qin, Peiyou, Shan, Fang, and Ren, Guixing. (2013) “Flavonoid composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of tartary buckwheat bran extract.” Industrial Crops and Products 49:312–317.
Wang, M., Liu, J.R., Gao, J.M., Parry, J.W., and Wei, Y.M. (2009) “Antioxidant activity of tartary buckwheat bran extract and its effect on the lipid profile of hyperlipidemic rats.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 57(11):5106–5112.
Wang, Z., Wang, L., Chang, W., Li, Y., Zhang, Z., Wieslander, G., and Norback, D. (2006) “Cloning, Expression, and Identification of Immunological Activity of an Allergenic Protein in Tartary Buckwheat.” Biosci. Biotecnhnol. Biochem. 70:1195-1199.
Wang, Z., Zhang, Z., Zhao, Z., Wieslander, G., Norback, D., and Kreft, I. (2004) “Purification and Characterization of a 24kDa Protein from Tartary Buckwheat Seeds.” Biosci. Biotecnhnol. Biochem. 68:1409-1413.
Wieslander, G., Fabjan, N., Vogrinčič, M., Kreft, I., Janson, C., Spetz-Nyström, U., Vombergar, B., Tagesson, C., Leanderson, P., and Norbäck, D. (2011) “Eating buckwheat cookies is associated with the reduction in serum levels of myeloperoxidase and cholesterol: A double blind crossover study in day-care center staffs.” Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 225:123-130.
Wieslander, G., Fabjan, N., Vogrinčič, M., Kreft, I., Vombergar, B., and Norbäck, D. (2012) “Effects of common and Tartary buckwheat consumption on mucosal symptoms, headache and tiredness: a double-blind crossover intervention study.” Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment 10(2):107–110.
Wieslander, G., Norbäck, D., Wang, ZH., Zhang, Z., Mi, YH., and Lin, RF. (2000) “Buckwheat allergy and reports on asthma and atopic disorders in Taiyuan city, Northern China.” Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immune. 3:147-152.
Yao, Y., Shan, F., Bian, J., Chen, F., Wang, M., and Ren, G. (2008) “D-Chiro-inositol-enriched tartary buckwheat bran extract lowers the blood glucose level in KK-Ay mice.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 56:10027–10031.
Yoshimoto, Y., Egashira, T., Hanashiro, I., Ohinata, H., Takase, Y., and Takeda, Y. (2004) “Molecular structure and some physicochemical properties of buckwheat starches.” Cereal Chemistry 81:515-520.
Zhang, M., Chen, H., Li, J., Pei, Y., and Liang, Y. (2010) “Antioxidant properties of tartary buckwheat extracts as affected by different thermal processing methods.” LWT Food Sci. Technol. 43:181–185.
Zhao, J., Jiang, L., Tang, X., Peng, L., Li, X., Zhao, G., and Zhong, L. (2018) “Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Flower Volatile Oils of Fagopyrum esculentum, Fagopyrum tataricum and Fagopyrum Cymosum.” Molecules 23:182; doi:10.3390/molecules23010182
Zielinska, D., Turemko, M., Kwiatkowski, J. and Zielinska, H. (2012) “Evaluation of flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity of the aerial parts of common and tartary buckwheat plants.” Molecules 17:9668–9682.