Tartary Buckwheat References

0908cropThe papers by N. Ikeda, by A. Ahmed et al. and by H. Wijngaard and E. Arendt are useful introductions to the nutritional literature on Tartary buckwheat. New studies are published almost weekly—mostly from Japan, China, and Europe. We’ll update these pages as frequently as we can. Please alert us articles that we have missed.

Ahmed, A., Khalid, N., Ahmad, A., Abbasi, N. A., Latif, M. S. Z., and Randhawa, M. A. (2014) “Phytochemicals and biofunctional properties of buckwheat: a review.” Journal of Agricultural Science 152(3):349-369.

Aoyagi, Y. (2006) “An angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitor from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flour.” Phytochemistry, 67(6):618–621.

Baniya, B.K., Dongol, D.M.S., Joshi, B.K., and Sharma, D.R. (2004) “Indigenous Cultural Practices and Social Perception for Conservation of Buckwheat Diversity in Nepal.” In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Buckwheat, Prague 2004 285-290.

Berti, C., Riso, P., Brusamolino, A., and Porrini, M. (2005) “Effect on appetite control of minor cereal and pseudocereal products.” British Journal of Nutrition 94:850–858.

Bonafaccia, G., and Fabjan, N. (2003a) “Nutritional comparison of tartary buckwheat with common buckwheat and minor cereals.” Zb. Bioteh. Fak. Univ. Ljublj. Kmet. 81(2):349-355.

Bonafaccia, G., Gambelli, L., Fabjan, N., and Kreft, I., (2003c) “Trace elements in flour and bran from common and tartary buckwheat.” Food Chemistry 83:1-5.

Bonafaccia, G., Marocchini, M., and Kreft, I. (2003b) “Composition and technological properties of the flour and bran from common and tartary buckwheat.” Food Chemistry 80:9–15.

Bruce, E. A. (1917) “Fagopyrismus (Buckwheat poisoning) and similar affections.” Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. J. 52:189-194.

Brunori, A., Baviello, G., Zannettino, C., Corsini, G., Sandor, G., and Vegvari, G. (2010) “The use of tartary buckwheat whole flour for bakery products: recent experience in Italy.” Annals of the University Dunarea de Jos Galati Fascicle V1 – Food Technology 34:33–38.

Brunori, A., and Végvári, G. (2007) “Rutin content of the grain of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) varieties grown in Southern Italy.” Acta Agronomica Hungarica 55(3):265–272.

Cao, W., Chen, W.J., Suo, Z.R., and Yao, Y.P. (2008) “Protective effects of ethanolic extracts of buckwheat groats on DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals.” Food Res. Inter. 41:924–929.

Chick, H., and Ellinger, P. (1941) “The photosensitizing action of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).” Journal of Physiology 100:212-230.

Cho, Y. J., Bae, I. Y., Inglett, G. E., and Lee, S. (2014) “Utilization of tartary buckwheat bran as a source of rutin and its effect on the rheological and antioxidant properties of wheat-based products.” Industrial Crops and Products 61:211–216.

Coe, M. R. (1931) Buckwheat Milling and Its By-products. Washington: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Circular 190, 12pp.

Cui, X-d., and Wang, Z-h. (2012) “Preparation and properties of rutin-hydrolyzing enzyme from tartary buckwheat seeds.” Food Chemistry 132:60–66.

Dietrych-Szostak, D., and Oleszek, W. (1999) “Effect of processing on the flavonoid content in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) grain.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 47(10):4384-4387.

Drobot, V., Semenova, A., Smirnov, J., and Myhonik, L. (2014) “Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour.” International Journal of Food Studies 3:1–12.

Eggum, B. O., Kreft, I., and Javornik, B. (1981) “Chemical composition and protein quality of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).” Qualitas Plantarum—Plant Foods For Human Nutrition 30(3–4):175–179.

Eguchi, K., Anase, T., and Osuga, H. (2009) “Development of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method to Determine the Fagopyrin Content of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tartaric Gaertn.) and Common Buckwheat (F. esculentum Moench).” Plant Prod. Sci. 12(4):475-480.

Fabjan, N., Rode, J., Kosˇir, I. J., Wang, Z., Zhang, Z., and Kreft, I. (2003) “Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) as a Source of Dietary Rutin and Quercitrin.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:6452−6455.

Filipcˇev, B., Šimurina, O., Sakacˇ, M., Sedej, I., Jovanov, P., Pestoric ́, M., and Bodrozˇa-Solarov, M. (2011) “Feasibility of use of buckwheat flour as an ingredient in ginger nut biscuit formulation.” Food Chemistry 125:164–170.

Gaberščik, A., Vončina, M., Trošt, T., Germ, M., and Bjorn, L. O. (2002) “Growth and production of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) treated with reduced, ambient and enhanced UV-B radiation.” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. 66:30-36.

Gao, J., Kreft, I., Chao, G., Wang, Y., Liu, X., Wang, L., Wang, P., Gao, X., and Feng, B. (2016) “Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) starch, a side product in functional food production, as a potential source of retrograded starch.” Food Chemistry 190:552-558.

Giménez-Bastida, J. A., and Piskuła, M. K., and Zieliński, H. (2015) “Recent Advances in Processing and Development of Buckwheat Derived Bakery and Non-Bakery Products – a Review.” Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 65(1):9–20.

GOLOB, A., GADŽO, D., STIBILJ, V., DJIKIĆ, M., GAVRIĆ, T., and GERM, M. (2016a) “Additon of Se affected concentration of Se in the second generation of tartary buckwheat plants.” Folia Biologica Geologica 57(1):87–92.

Golob, A., Germ, M., Kreft, I., Zelnik, I., Kristan, U., Stibilj, V. (2016b) “Selenium uptake and Se compounds in Se-treated buckwheat.” Acta Bot. Croat. DOI:10.1515/botcro-2016-0016

GRIN (USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network.) [https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?16531]

Guo, Y., Zhu, Y., Chen, C., and Chen, X. (2016) “Effects of Aeration Treatment on 𝛾-Aminobutyric Acid Accumulation in Germinated Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum).” Journal of Chemistry, DOI:10.1155/2016/4576758

Guo, X-D., Ma, Y-J., Parry, J., Gao, J-M., Yu, L-L., and Wang, M. (2011) “Phenolics Content and Antioxidant Activity of Tartary Buckwheat from Different Locations.” Molecules 16:9850-9867; doi:10.3390/molecules16129850

Guo, X., and Yao, H. (2006) “Fractionation and characterization of Tartary buckwheat flour proteins.” Food Chemistry 98:90–94.

Han, L., Zhou, Y., Tatsumi, E., Shen, Q., Cheng, Y., and Li, L. (2013) “Thermomechanical Properties of Dough and Quality of Noodles Made from Wheat Flour Supplemented with Different Grades of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) Flour.” Food Bioprocess. Technol. 6:1953–1962.

Hatcher, D.W., Bellido, G.G., Anderson, M.J., Dexter, J.E., Head, D., and Izydorczyk, M. (2011) “Investigation of empirical and fundamental soba noodle texture parameters prepared with Tartary, green testa and common buckwheat.” Journal of Texture Studies 42:490–502.

Higasa, S., Fujihara, S., Hayashi, A., Kimoto, K., Aoyagi, Y. (2011) “Distribution of a novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory substance (2”-hydroxynicotianamine) in the flour, plant parts, and processed products of buckwheat.” Food Chemistry 125:607–613.

Hinneburg, I., and Neubert, R. H. H. (2005) “Influence of Extraction Parameters on the Phytochemical Characteristics of Extracts from Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) Herb.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:3−7.

Hou, Z. X., Hu, Y. Y., Yang, X., and Chen, W. (2017) “Antihypertensive effects of Tartary buckwheat flavonoids by improvement of vascular insulin sensitivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats.” Food Funct. 8:4217-4228.

Hu, Y. Y., Hou, Z. X., Liu, D. Y., and Yang, X. Y. (2016) “Tartary buckwheat flavonoids protect hepatic cells against high glucose-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance via MAPK signaling pathways.” Food Funct. 7:1523–1536.

Hu, Y. Y., Zhao, Y., Yuan, L., and Yang, X. B. (2015) “Protective effects of Tartary buckwheat flavonoids on high TMAO diet- induced vascular dysfunction and liver injury in mice.” Food Funct. 6:3359–3372.

Huang, Y-F., Peng, L-X., Liu,Y., Zhang, Z-F.,Lu, L-Y., and Zhao,G. (2013) “Evaluation of essential and toxic element concentrations in different parts of buckwheat.” Czech Journal of Food Science 31:249-255.

Huang, X.-Y., Zeller, F., Huang, K.-F., Shi, T.-X., and Chen, K.-F. (2014) “Variation of major minerals and trace elements in seeds of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).” Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 61:567–577.

Hung, P. V., Maeda, T., and Morita, N. (2009) “Buckwheat Starch: Structure and Characteristics – A Review.” European Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology 3(Special Issue I):23-28.

Hussain, N., Ali, M., Hussain, S., Mehmood, K., and Nasir, M. (2017) “Mineral composition and sensory evaluation of buckwheat cookies supplemented with wheat flour.” International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition 2:114-118.

Ikeda, K. (2002) “Buckwheat: Composition, chemistry, and processing.” Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 44:395-434.

Ikeda, K., Ishida, Y. , Ikeda, S., Asami, Y., and Lin, R. (2017) “Tartary, but not common, buckwheat inhibits α-glucosidase activity: its nutritional implications.” Fagopyrum 34:13-18

Ishii, S., Katsumura, T., Shiozuka, C., Ooyauchi, K., Kawasaki, K., Takigawa, S., et al. (2008) “Anti-inflammatory effect of buckwheat sprouts in lipopolysaccharide-activated human colon cancer cells and mice.” Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 72(12):3148–3157.

Javornik, B., Eggum, B. O., and Kreft. 1. (1981) “Studies on protein fractions and protein quality of buckwheat.” Genetika 13(2):115-121.

Jiang, P., Burczyn ́ski, F., Campbell, C., Pierce, G., Austria, J. A., and Briggs, C. J. (2007) “Rutin and flavonoid contents in three buckwheat species Fagopyrum esculentum, F. tataricum and F. homotropicum and their protective effects against lipid peroxidation.” Food Res. Int. 40:356–364.

Jin, H-M., and Wei, P. (2011) “Anti-Fatigue Properties of Tartary Buckwheat Extracts in Mice.” Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12:4770-4780; doi:10.3390/ijms12084770.

Kano, Masatoshi, Kizaki, Tadashige, and Inasawa, Toshiyuki (2004) “The State of Cultivating Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) and its Traditional Dishes along Everest Trekking Route, Nepal.” In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Buckwheat, Prague 2004 547-552.

Kawa, J. M., Taylor, C. G., and Przlybylski, R. (2003) “Buckwheat concentrate reduces serum glucose in streptozotocin–diabetic rats.” J. Agr. Food Chem. 51:7287–7291. DOI: 10.1021/jf0302153.

Kim, S. H., Cui, C. B., Kang, I. J., Kim, S. Y., and Ham, S. S. (2007) “Cytotoxic effect of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) hull against cancer cells.” Journal of Medicinal Food 10(2):232–238.

Kim, S.-J., Zaidul, I. S. M., Suzuki, T., Mukasa, Y., Hashimoto, N., Takigawa, S., Noda, T., Matsuura-Endo, C., and H. Yamauchi (2008) “Comparison of phenolic compositions between common and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum) sprouts.” Food Chem. 110:814–820; DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem. 2008.02.050.

Kishore, G., Ranjan, S., Pandey, A., and Gupta, S. (2010) “Influence of altitudinal variation on the antioxidant potential of tartar buckwheat of western Himalaya.” Food Sci. Biotechnol. 19:1355-1363.

Kočevar Glavač, N., Stojilkovski, K., Kreft, S., Park, C.H., and Kreft, I. (2017) “Determination of fagopyrins, rutin, and quercetin in Tartary buckwheat products.” LWT – Food Science and Technology doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2017.01.068

Kreft, Samo, Janesˇ, Damjan, and Ivan Kreft (2013) “The content of fagopyrin and polyphenols in common and tartary buckwheat sprouts.” Acta Pharm. 63:553–560.

Kuwabara, T., Han, K. H., Hashimoto, N., Yamauchi, H., Shimada, K., and Sekikawa, M. (2007). “Tartary buckwheat sprout powder lowers plasma cholesterol level in rats.” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology (Tokyo) 53(6):501–507.

Lahanov, A. P., Muzalevskaja, R. S., Shelepina, N. V., and Gorkova, I. V. (2004) “Biochemical characteristics of some species of genus Fagopyrum Mill.” In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Buckwheat, Prague 2004 604-611.

Lee, C. C., Hsu, W. H., Shen, S. R., Cheng, Y. H., and Wu, S. C. (2012) “Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat) improved high-glucose-induced insulin resistance in mouse hepatocytes and diabetes in fructose-rich diet–induced mice.” Exp Diabetes Res 1:83–8.

Lee, C. C., Shen, S. R.,Lai, Y. J., and Wu, S. C. (2013) “Rutin and quercetin, bioactive compounds from tartary buckwheat, prevent liver inflammatory injury.” Food Funct. 4:794–802.

Lee, J-S., Bok, S-H., Jeon, S-M., Kim, H-J., Do, K-M., Park, Y-B., and Choi, M-S. (2010) “Antihyperlipidemic effects of buckwheat leaf and flower in rats fed a high-fat diet.” Food Chemistry 119:235–240.

Li, J., Gong, F., and Li, F. (2016) “Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of flavonoids from tatary buckwheat in type 2 diabetic rats.” Biomedical Research 27(1):132-137.

Li, W., Lin, R., and Corke, H. (2000) “Assessing the quality of common and tartary buckwheat starch.” In Howeler, R. H., Oates, C. G., and O’Brien, G. M., eds. Proceedings of the International Symposium held in Nanning, Guangxi, China. Nov 11-15, 1996. 282-291.

Lin, L.-Y., Liu, H.-M., Yu, Y.-W., Lin, S.-D., and Mau, J.-L. (2009) “Quality and antioxidant property of buckwheat enhanced wheat bread.” Food Chemistry 112:987–991.

Lin,R. (2004) “The Development and Utilization of Tartary Buckwheat Resources.” In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Buckwheat, Prague 2004 252-258.

Lin, R., Zhou, Y., Wang, R., and Li, J. (2001) “A Study on the Extract of Tartary Buckwheat I. Toxicological Safety of the Extract of Tartary Buckwheat.” In Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Buckwheat 602-607.

Liu, H., Wang, L., Shen, M., Guo, X., lv, M., and Wang, M. (2016) “Changes in physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of tartary buckwheat and sorghum starches induced by annealing.” Starch/Stärke 68:709–718.

Liu, B., and Zhu, Y. (2007) “Extraction of flavonoids from flavonoid-rich parts in tartary buckwheat and identification of the main flavonoids.” Journal of Food Engineering 78:584–587.

Lukšič, L., Árvay, J., Vollmannová, A., Tóth, T., Škrabanja, V., Trček, J., Germ, M., and Kreft, I. (2016b) ”Hydrothermal treatment of Tartary buckwheat grain hinders the transformation of rutin to quercetin.” Journal of Cereal Science 72:131-134. doi:10.1016/j.jcs.2016.10.009

Lukšič, L., Bonafaccia, G., Timoracka, M., Vollmannová, A., Trcek, J., Kozelj Nyambe, T., Melini, V., Acquistucci, R., Germ, M., and Kreft, I. (2016a) “Rutin and quercetin transformation during preparation of buckwheat sourdough bread.” Journal of Cereal Science 69:71-76

Ma, J. F., Hiradate, S., and Matsumoto, H. (1998) “High aluminum resistance in buckwheat II. Oxalic acid detoxifies aluminum internally.” Plant Physiology 117:753-759.

Ma, Y., Guo, X., Liu, H., Xu, B. and Wang, M. (2013) “Cooking, textural, sensorial, and antioxidant properties of common and tartary buckwheat noodles.” Food Sci. Biotechnol. 22:153–159.

Ma, Y., and Xiong, Y. L. (2009) “Antioxidant and Bile Acid Binding Activity of Buckwheat Protein in Vitro Digests.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 57: 4372–4380.

Maeda, T., Miyake, K., Tahara, M., and Morita, N. (2004) “Effect of Buckwheat Substitution for Wheat Flour on Pasta and Cookie.” In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Buckwheat, Prague 2004 559-564.

Maikhuri R. K. (1997). “Eroding Traditional Crop Diversity Imperils the Sustainability of Agricultural Systems in the Central Himalayas.” Current Science 73(9): 777–782.

Marlett, J. A. (1992) “Content and composition of dietary fiber in 117 frequently consumed foods.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 92(2):175-186.

Mazza, G. (1988) “Lipid content and fatty acid composition of buckwheat seed.” Cereal Chemistry 65:122-126.

Merendino, N., Molinari, R., Costantini, L., Mazzucato, A., Pucci, A., Bonafaccia, F., Esti, M., Ceccantoni, B., Papeschi, C., and Bonafaccia, G. (2014) “A new ‘functional’ pasta containing tartary buckwheat sprouts as an ingredient improves the oxidative status and normalizes some blood pressure parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats.” Food and Function 5:1017-1026.

Morishita, T., Yamaguchi, H., and Degi, K. (2007) “The contribution of polyphenols to antioxidant activity in common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat grain.” Plant Production Science 10:99-104.

Ni, R., Lui, E., Cheng, C., and Zhang, J. (1995)
“A Study of the Production of Healthy Biscuit Made with Tartary Buckwheat Grown in North China.” Current Advances in Buckwheat Research, 861-865.

Norbu, S., and Roder, W. (2001) “Traditional Uses of Buckwheat in Bhutan.” In: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Buckwheat,” 670-672.

Peng, L.-X., Huang, Y.-F., Liu, Y., Zhang, Z.-F., Lu, L., and Zhao, G. (2014) “Evaluation of Essential and Toxic Element Concentrations in Buckwheat by Experimental and Chemometric Approaches.” Journal of Integrative Agriculture 13(8):1691-1698.

Peng, L-X., Zou, L., Tan, M-L., Deng, Y-Y., Yan, J., Yan, Z-Y., and Zhao, G. (2017) “Free Amino Acids, Fatty Acids, and Phenolic Compounds in Tartary Buckwheat of Different Hull Colour.” Czech J. Food Sci. 35(3): 214–222.

Pongrac, P., Potisek, M., Fras´, A., Likar, M., Budic, B.,
Myszka, K., Boros, D., Necemer, M., Kelemen, M., Vavpetic, P., Pelicon, P., Vogel-Mikus, K., Regvar, M., and Kreft, I. (2016) “Composition of mineral elements and bioactive compounds in Tartary buckwheat and wheat sprouts as affected by natural mineral-rich water.” Journal of Cereal Science 69:9-16. DOI:10.1016/j.jcs.2016.02.002

Qin, P., Wang, Q., Shan, F., Hou, Z., and Ren, G. (2010) “Nutritional composition and flavonoids content of flour from different buckwheat cultivars.” International Journal of Food Science and Technology 45:951–958.

Qin, P., Wu, L., Yao, Y., and Ren, G. (2013) “Changes in phytochemical compositions, antioxidant and ⍺-glucosidase inhibitory activities during the processing of tartary buckwheat tea.” Food Res. Int. 50:562–567.

Rana, J. C., Chauhan, R. C., Sharma, T. R., and Gupta, N. (2012) “Analyzing Problems and Prospects of Buckwheat Cultivation in India.” European Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology 6(Special Issue 2):50-56.

Sammut, D., Dennison, P., Venter, C., and Kurukulaaratchy, R. (2011) “Buckwheat allergy: a potential problem in 21st century Britain.” BMJ Case Rep. bcr0920114882. doi:10.1136/bcr.09.2011.4882 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3214221/

Saunders Bulan, M. T., Posner, J. L., Peng, D., Emshwiller, E., Wang, X., Li, J., Stoltenberg D., and Stoecker, R. (2017) “Old Crop, New Society: Persistence and Change of Tartary Buckwheat Farming in Yunnan, China.” Human Ecology 45:37–51

Scheucher, S. (2004) “Buckwheat in Tibet (TAR).” In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Buckwheat, Prague 2004 295-298.

Sindhu, R., and Khatkar, B. S. (2016) “Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Starch and Flour of Tartary Buckwheat (F. Tataricum) Grains.” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology 5:315-320.

Shen, R., Ma, J. F., Kyo, M., and Iwashita, T. (2002) “Compartmentation of aluminium in leaves of an Al-accumulator, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.” Planta 215:394–398.

Skrabanja, V., Laerke, H. N., and Kreft, I. (1998) “Effects of Hydrothermal Processing of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Groats on Starch Enzymatic Availability In Vitro and In Vivo in Rats.” Journal of Cereal Science 28:209–214.

Skrabanja, V., Laerke, H. N., and Kreft, I. (2000) “Protein-polyphenol interactions and in vivo digestibility of buckwheat groat proteins.” Eur. J. Physiol. 440 [Suppl]: R129-Rl31.

Song, C., Xiang, D-B., Yan, L., Song, Y., Zhao, G., Wang, Y-H., and Zhang, B-L. (2016) “Changes in seed growth, levels and distribution of flavonoids during tartary buckwheat seed development.” Plant Production Science 19(4):518–527. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1343943X.2016.1207485

Steadman, K. J., Burgoon, M. S., Schuster, R. L., Lewis, B. A., Edwardson, S. E., and Obendorf, R. L. (2000) “Fagopyritols, D-chiro-inositol, and other soluble carbohydrates in buckwheat seed milling fractions.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48:2843–2847.

Steadman, K. J., Burgoon, M. S., Lewis, B. A., Edwardson, S. E., and Obendorf, R. L. (2001a) “Buckwheat seed milling fractions: Description, macronutrient composition and dietary fibre.” J. Cereal Sci. 33:271-278.

Stojilkovski, K., Kočevar Glavač, N., Kreft, S., and Kreft, I. (2013) “Fagopyrin and flavonoid contents in common, Tartary, and cymosum buckwheat.” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 32:126–130.

Suzuki, T., Honda, Y., and Mukasa, Y. (2005a) “Effects of UV-B radiation, cold and desiccation stress on rutin concentration and rutin glucosidase activity in tartary buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum) leaves.” Plant Science 168:1303–1307.

Suzuki, T., Honda, Y., Mukasa ,Y., and Kim, S-J. (2005b) “Effects of lipase, lipoxygenase, peroxidase, and rutin on quality deteriorations in buckwheat flour.” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 53:8400-8405.

Tamura, H., Honda, M. Sato, T., and Kamachi, H. (2005) “Pb hyperaccumulation and tolerance in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).” J. Plant Res. 118:355–359.

Tavčar Benković, E., Žigon, D., Friedrich, M., Plavec, J., and Kreft, S. (2014) “Isolation, analysis and structures of phototoxic fagopyrins from buckwheat”. Food Chemistry 143:432–439. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.07.118

Tsuzuki, W., Ogata, Y., Akasaka, K., Shibata, S., and Suzuki, T. (1991) “Fatty acid composition of selected buckwheat species by fluorometric high-performance liquid chromatography.” Cereal Chemistry 68(4):365-369.

Udesky, J. (1988) The Book of Soba. New York: Kodansha International, 166 pp.

Vogrin􏰈ci􏰈c, M., Kreft, I.,Filipi􏰈c, M.,and Zˇegura, B. (2013) ”Antigenotoxic Effect of Tartary (Fagopyrum tataricum) and Common (Fagopyrum esculentum) Buckwheat Flour.” J. Med. Food 16(10):944–952.

Vogrin􏰈ci􏰈c, M., Timoracka, M., Melichacova, S., Vollmannova, A., Kreft, I. (2010) “Degradation of rutin and polyphenols during the preparation of tartary buckwheat bread.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 58:4883–4887.

Wang, B., and Hu, H. (2013) “Flavonoids from Tartary Buckwheat Seed .” Asian J. Chem. 25:2012-2014.

Wang, H., Chen, R. F., Iwashita, T., Shen, R. F., and Ma, J. F. (2015) “Physiological characterization of aluminum tolerance and accumulation in tartary and wild buckwheat.” New Phytologist 205:273–279 DOI:10.1111/nph.13011

Wang, Lijun, Yan, Xiushi, Qin, Peiyou, Shan, Fang, and Ren, Guixing. (2013) “Flavonoid composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of tartary buckwheat bran extract.” Industrial Crops and Products 49:312–317.

Wang, Z., Wang, L., Chang, W., Li, Y., Zhang, Z., Wieslander, G., and Norback, D. (2006) “Cloning, Expression, and Identification of Immunological Activity of an Allergenic Protein in Tartary Buckwheat.” Biosci. Biotecnhnol. Biochem. 70:1195-1199.

Wang, Z., Zhang, Z., Zhao, Z., Wieslander, G., Norback, D., and Kreft, I. (2004) “Purification and Characterization of a 24kDa Protein from Tartary Buckwheat Seeds.” Biosci. Biotecnhnol. Biochem. 68:1409-1413.

Wei, Y., Zhang, Y., Liu, R., Zhang, B., Li, M., and Jin, S. (2017) “Origin and Evolution of Chinese Noodles.” Cereal Foods World 62(2):44-51.

Wieslander, G., Fabjan, N., Vogrinčič, M., Kreft, I., Janson, C., Spetz-Nyström, U., Vombergar, B., Tagesson, C., Leanderson, P., and Norbäck, D. (2011) “Eating buckwheat cookies is associated with the reduction in serum levels of myeloperoxidase and cholesterol: A double blind crossover study in day-care center staffs.” Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 225:123-130.

Wieslander, G., Fabjan, N., Vogrinčič, M., Kreft, I., Vombergar, B., and Norbäck, D. (2012) “Effects of common and Tartary buckwheat consumption on mucosal symptoms, headache and tiredness: a double-blind crossover intervention study.” Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment 10(2):107–110.

Wieslander, G., and Norbäck, D. (2001) “Buckwheat allergy.” Allergy 56:703-704.

Wieslander, G., Norbäck, D., Wang, ZH., Zhang, Z., Mi, YH., and Lin, RF. (2000) “Buckwheat allergy and reports on asthma and atopic disorders in Taiyuan city, Northern China.” Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immune. 3:147-152.

Wijngaard, H. H., and Arendt, E. K. (2006) “Buckwheat.” Cereal Chemistry 83(4):391-401.

Xu, F-Y., Gao, Q-H. Ma, Y-J., Guo, X-D., and Wang, M. (2014) “Comparison of Tartary Buckwheat Flour and Sprouts Steamed Bread in Quality and Antioxidant Property.” Journal of Food Quality 37:318–328.

Yang, F., Yu, S-y., Wang,Y., Wang, R-f., and Jing, F. (2014) “Prospective induction of peripheral neuropathy by the use of Tartarian Buckwheat.” Journal of the Neurological Sciences 347(1-2):155–158.

Yao, Y., Shan, F., Bian, J., Chen, F., Wang, M., and Ren, G. (2008) “D-Chiro-inositol-enriched tartary buckwheat bran extract lowers the blood glucose level in KK-Ay mice.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 56:10027–10031.

Yoo, J., Kim, Y., Yoo, S-H., Inglett, G. E., and Lee, S. (2012) “Reduction of rutin loss in buckwheat noodles and their physicochemical characterisation.” Food Chemistry 132:2107–2111.

Yoshimoto, Y., Egashira, T., Hanashiro, I., Ohinata, H., Takase, Y., and Takeda, Y. (2004) “Molecular structure and some physicochemical properties of buckwheat starches.” Cereal Chemistry 81:515-520.

Yutaka, H., Mukasa, Y., Suzuki, T., and Abe, N. (2004) “Stone Buckwheat, Genetic Resource of Tartary Buckwheat.” In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Buckwheat, Prague 2004, 185-189.

Zhang, M., Chen, H., Li, J., Pei, Y., and Liang, Y. (2010) “Antioxidant properties of tartary buckwheat extracts as affected by different thermal processing methods.” LWT Food Sci. Technol. 43:181–185.

Zhao, G., Tang, Y., Wang, A., and Hu, Z. C(2004) “China’s Buckwheat Resources and Their Medicinal Values.” In Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Buckwheat, Prague 2004, 630-632.

Zhao, J., Jiang, L., Tang, X., Peng, L., Li, X., Zhao, G., and Zhong, L. (2018) “Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Flower Volatile Oils of Fagopyrum esculentum, Fagopyrum tataricum and Fagopyrum Cymosum.” Molecules 23:182; doi:10.3390/molecules23010182

Zheng, S. J., Ma, J. F., and Matsumoto, H. (1998) “High Aluminum Resistance in Buckwheat I. Al-induced Specific Secretion of Oxalic Acid from Root Tips.” Plant Physiol. 117:745–751.

Zielinska, D., Turemko, M., Kwiatkowski, J. and Zielinska, H. (2012) “Evaluation of flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity of the aerial parts of common and tartary buckwheat plants.” Molecules 17:9668–9682.